Garlic is the bulb of Allium sativum L., a species of the genus Allium (onion) in the family Amaryllidaceae (daffodil family). There are roughly 700 species of the Allium genus worldwide with 170 species found in Turkey. Garlic is an herbaceous plant consisting of root, stem, leaf, tooth and flower parts, growing up to 25-100 cm tall with greenish white or pink flowers.
The first known documented use of garlic was recorded by the Sumerians during the timeframe of 2600-2100 BC. Its point of origin can be traced to Central Asia. Garlic frequently appears in both Indian and Chinese texts. It was a staple food for those who were responsible for constructing the Egyptian pyramids. Evidence of this can be found in the numerous garlic cloves discovered within the tomb of Tutankhamun, one of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs. In the 19th century, Louis Pasteur scientifically established the antibacterial properties of garlic and suggested its usage in medicine, stating its equivalent effectiveness to penicillin. Furthermore, garlic was employed to tackle injuries and intestinal infections during World Wars I and II.
This plant holds great medicinal significance and is commonly used in a wide variety of dishes, particularly meat-based ones, due to its strong aroma and the fact that it stimulates the appetite with its spicy flavour. One hundred grams of garlic contain 63.8 g of water, 28.2 g of carbohydrates, 5.3 g of protein, 0.2 g of fat, and 1.1 g of cellulose, with a total of 140 calories. Garlic comprises over 200 chemical compounds, including sulfur-containing compounds (allicin, alliin and ajoene), essential oils and enzymes (alinase, peroxidase and mirasinase), carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose), minerals, amino acids, and vitamins A, B1, B2, niacin and vitamin C.
Garlic possesses extraordinary properties, including antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic qualities, as well as the ability to reduce blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol, safeguard the liver and contain antitumour substances. Garlic, a plant containing over 200 chemicals, has the ability to shield the human body against several diseases. While it is commonly believed that raw garlic is the most effective form, some researchers propose that aged extracts, oils and cooked garlic can provide better protection against free radicals and infections in specific cases.
In a study carried out on male mice, researchers reported that DATS (diallyltrisulphide), which is a component found in garlic, can inhibit the growth of cancerous PC-3 cells that cause prostate cancer.
Furthermore, it has been revealed that these sulfur compounds are highly efficacious in inhibiting and eradicating the progression of lung cancer, brain tumors, prostate cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, and breast cancer.
It has been previously demonstrated that garlic extract augments the fibres between liver cells in mice and hinders blood clotting (tTG) activity in tissues. In a recent investigation, the mechanism dictating these findings was analysed. According to the results of this study, garlic extraction was shown to repair the fibres between liver cells, remodelling of extracellular spaces and regeneration of liver tissues and functions.
We utilise conventional extraction in the garlic extraction process. Garlic undergoes solvent treatment in specific proportions and concentration for a set period. After concentration, the resulting liquid extract is collected. The garlic liquid extract is spray-dried and encapsulated to form garlic powder extract. The garlic liquid extract is spray-dried and encapsulated to form garlic powder extract. Both extracts are analysed in an HPLC chromatography device for the presence of the active substance Allicin.